Death of the inner pulp may be caused by prolonged exposure of dentin to oral bacteria. Treatment for these major fractures involve the exposed dentin placed with a sedative dressing, then a dental filling, a porcelain or gold crown, or a ‘cap’ follows to protect the tooth pulp. In general, dental filling or bonding involves a chip being filled in using a specialized dental material similar to resin. Porcelain veneers involves fitting a thin porcelain shell over the front of the teeth to hide the chip. Dental crowns are used if the chip is serious and a break is imminent.